The Danish Energy Agency has developed an LCA model for transportation fuels. This model includes all modes of transportation, cars, trucks, buses, trains, planes, and ships. It also includes a significant number of conventional and alternative fuels pathways. (S&T)2 developed the portion of the model that calculated the emissions associated with the materials in the vehicles, vessels, rail cars, and airplanes.

(S&T)2 developed a bill of materials for each of the modes of transport. Information on cars, trucks, buses, trains, ships, and planes was obtained. To the degree possible European data for the bill of materials has been used.

The Danish Energy Agency administers energy and supply in Denmark as well as climate initiatives. The Danish Energy Agency is a part of the Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate. They publish catalogues of technology data for energy technologies. Technology Data provides information about technology, economy and environment for a number of energy installations and are among other things used by the Danish Energy Agency for energy projections.

Yukon Energy is a publicly owned electrical utility that operates as a business, at arm’s length from the Yukon government. They are the main generator and transmitter of electrical energy in Yukon and work with their parent company Yukon Development Corporation, to provide a sufficient supply of safe, reliable electricity and related energy services.

The Coordinating Research Council, Inc. (CRC) is a non-profit corporation supported by the petroleum and automotive equipment industries. CRC operates through the committees made up of technical experts from industry and government who voluntarily participate. The four main areas of research within CRC are: air pollution (atmospheric and engineering studies); aviation fuels, lubricants, and equipment performance; heavy-duty vehicle fuels, lubricants, and equipment performance (e.g., diesel trucks); and light-duty vehicle fuels, lubricants, and equipment performance (e.g., passenger cars). CRC’s function is to provide the mechanism for joint research conducted by the two industries that will help in determining the optimum combination of petroleum products and automotive equipment. CRC’s work is limited to research that is mutually beneficial to the two industries involved. The final results of the research conducted by, or under the auspices of, CRC are available to the public.

IEA Bioenergy operates within the IEA energy technology and R&D collaboration programme. This programme facilitates co-operation among IEA Member and non-Member countries to develop new and improved energy technologies and introduce them into the market. Activities are set up under Technology Collaboration Programmes (TCPs) which provide the legal mechanisms for establishing the commitments of the Contracting Parties and the management structure to guide the activity. Contracting Parties can be government organisations or private entities designated by their governments.

This work developed energy balances and GHG emission profiles for as many advanced biofuel pathways as data could be found for. The Task 39 advanced biofuel demo plant database has been used to identify fuel pathways that could be studied. The plants identified were researched for information to establish energy balance and GHG emissions.

A number of known pathways with sufficient public information were included in the analysis and report. These include:

  • Ethanol from a biochemical process using agricultural residues.
  • Ethanol from a thermochemical process using woody biomass.
  • FT Distillate via a thermochemical process using woody biomass.
  • DME via a thermochemical process using woody biomass.
  • Ethanol from hybrid (biochemical and thermochemical) approaches.
  • Gasoline and diesel fuels via pyrolysis routes.

The US National Advanced Biofuels Consortium is investigating six process strategies for producing hydrocarbon biofuels. Mass and energy balances for these strategies have been estimated or projected and used in this analysis. These process strategies include:

  • Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars
  • Catalysis of lignocellulosic sugars
  • Catalytic fast pyrolysis
  • Hydropyrolysis
  • Hydrothermal liquefaction
  • Syngas to distillates.