(S&T)2 has conducted a critical review for the ART Fuels Forum (AFF) of the study ‘Determining the environmental impacts of conventional and alternatively fuels vehicles through LCA’ that was commissioned by the European Commission’s DG Climate Action.  The stated aim of the study was to improve the understanding of the environmental impacts of road vehicles and the methodologies to assess them in the mid- to long-term timeframe (up to 2050). It covered a selection of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) with different types of powertrains (internal combustion engine and/or electric engine powered by fuel cells or batteries) and using different types of energy (of fossil and/or renewable origin). The (S&T)2 critical review focussed on the fuel supply chains.

The ATM Project was funded by GARDN to advance the development of biojet fuels in Canada. The key objective of the ATM Project was to demonstrate that thermochemical technologies (fast pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction) and upgrading through hydrotreatment was a feasible and suitable method for biojet fuel production. An integrated analysis of technical, techno-economic and life cycle aspects (using GHGenius) was carried out within the current policy framework.

  • 3 biocrudes were sourced from 3 different processes (fast pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction)
  • Two labs carried out the upgrading – Canmet-Energy, PNNL
  • Two different hydrotreatment methods were used
  • Therefore 6 pathways overall were analysed

The Danish Energy Agency and Energinet, the Danish transmission system operator, publish catalogues containing data on technologies for energy carrier generation and conversion.

The catalogue presents technologies for generation and conversion of energy carriers. In particular: production of hydrogen by means of electrolysis, biofuels from biomass and production/upgrade of biogas/syngas. Most of the process are characterised by multiple inputs and multiple outputs, which include for example different fuels/feedstocks, electricity and process heat (recoverable or lost). Upstream and downstream processes are not included - the datasheets do not provide information on prices for fuels, environmental impact from fuel procurement, or the economic consequences of the substitution of fossil fuels with liquid fuels produced from biomass. The main purpose of the catalogue is to provide generalized data for analysis of energy systems, including economic scenario models and high-level energy planning.

The Coordinating Research Council, Inc. (CRC) is a non-profit corporation supported by the petroleum and automotive equipment industries. CRC operates through the committees made up of technical experts from industry and government who voluntarily participate. CRC’s function is to provide the mechanism for joint research conducted by the two industries that will help in determining the optimum combination of petroleum products and automotive equipment. CRC’s work is limited to research that is mutually beneficial to the two industries involved. The final results of the research conducted by, or under the auspices of, CRC are available to the public.

The Global Renewable Fuels Alliance (GRFA) is a global biofuels federation representing over 90% of the world’s renewable fuels production from 45 different countries.

The objective of this project, undertaken by (S&T)2, was to estimate the global GHG emissions reduction achieved through the production and use of biofuels. This work was first undertaken in 2009 and much has changed since then: biofuel production levels are higher, biofuel production processes have become more efficient and more is known about the GHG emissions of fossil fuel systems.